Because of the disordered nature of amorphous silicon, solar cells are subject to the Staebler-Wronski effect, which reduces the solar cell efficiency by up to 15 percent within the first 1000 hours.This undesired effect is triggered by internal annihilation — known in physics as recombination — of charge that has not been extracted from the solar cell. The released recombination energy induces defects in the amorphous network called Light Induced Defects.